Knee Flexion Angle Measurement Using Virtual Assessment Tools: Correct Procedure and Potential PitfallsVirtual patient assessment will inevitably require smartphone technology to remotely measure knee range of motion. We conducted an experiment to analyze the impact of observer position relative to the flexed knee on the perceived angle measured using an electronic application (Dr. Goniometer) for iPhone. Two observers measured the apparent knee flexion angle from 7 different positions at 3 different heights relative to the center of the knee joint. Intraclass correlations were calculated to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability using two-way mixed-effects models.
A state-of-the-art pain protocol for total knee replacementTotal knee replacement is acknowledged as a successful and durable operation, but recovery from this surgery is often lengthy and painful. A great deal of attention has recently been directed at enhancing this recovery, most of which has focused on improvements in perioperative pain control. Various protocols have been suggested. This article discusses a pain management program that uses local infiltrative analgesia with a specific “cocktail” which, when combined with an oral multimodal pain regimen, has led to excellent patient satisfaction and a substantially shorter length of stay.