Centralizing the Cemented Exeter Femoral Stem Using the Direct Lateral Approach: Surgical Tips and Radiological EvaluationVarus malalignment in total hip arthroplasty has been associated with poor long-term outcomes and complications including abnormal load distribution, endosteal osteolysis, frank loosening, and periprosthetic fractures. Postoperative radiographic assessment was performed on 224 patients from our case series who underwent cemented Exeter total hip arthroplasty using the direct lateral approach alone. No patient had a true varus-aligned stem (ie, ≤−5° on the coronal assessment). We describe our surgical technique, with 4 easily reproducible technical tips to achieve positional consistency of the femoral stem: commencing stem insertion from the piriform fossa entry point, using a femoral stem distal centralizer, aiming the tip of the component to the center of the patella, and placing the thumb between the calcar and inferior neck of the femoral component to prevent the stem from tipping into varus.
A Simple, Personalized Opioid Stratification Pathway Dramatically Reduces Opioid UtilizationOrthopaedic surgeons account for the largest proportion of opioid prescriptions in the United States among surgical specialties. In total joint arthroplasty, increased opioid use has been associated with poorer clinical and functional outcomes. Despite an abundance of literature on opioid mitigation strategies, most fail to provide personalized prescriptions. Typically, most protocols prescribe the same opioid regimen regardless of patient factors or the extent of the planned procedure. We present a simple opioid stratification pathway that can be used by physicians and office staff as they prepare patients for arthroplasty.
Combating the Opioid Epidemic: Experience with a Single Prescription for Total Joint ArthroplastyDespite advances in perioperative total joint arthroplasty (TJA) pain protocols, opiates continue to play a major role in postoperative pain control. This brief communication reports our experience with a restrictive opioid protocol allowing patients only a single prescription of low-dose opioids.
A Novel Technique to Detect Femoral Shaft Perforation during Direct Anterior Total Hip ArthroplastyDespite its popularity, the direct anterior approach for hip arthroplasty is not without complications. Intraoperative femoral shaft perforation using this approach ranges from 0.8% to 7%. A missed perforation can lead to fracture with the need for further surgery if not detected intraoperatively. We describe a reproducible and cost-effective technique using a plastic Yankauer suction handle to help identify proximal femoral perforations during direct anterior total hip arthroplasty. Careful attention to the visual, tactile, and auditory feedback provided by the suction handle can help ensure the cortical continuity of the proximal femur.
Clinical Experience With a Coordinated Multidisciplinary Approach to Treating Prosthetic Joint InfectionThe successful treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult, requiring coordination across multiple specialties. In 2017, we formed a collaboration between our infectious disease clinicians and our orthopaedic arthroplasty surgeons in an effort to optimize care, accommodate patients, and expedite clinical decision-making in the treatment of PJI. The model consisted of combined infectious disease and arthroplasty clinics, standardized lab results, and planned staged revision procedures.
A Vertical Measurement System to Predict the Change in Leg Length in Total Hip ArthroplastyThe management of leg lengths in total hip arthroplasty continues to challenge orthopaedic surgeons. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of a measuring device used to measure the resected femoral head and how the resulting intra operatively calculated change in leg length compares to the radiographically measured change in leg length. Four orthopaedic surgeons measured 20 femoral heads and the intra class coefficients of the raters were between 0.955 and 0.990 with a mean difference less 1 mm, indicating the reliability of the device.
Rapidly Progressive Osteoarthritis and Acetabular Bone Loss Outcomes for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Hip ReplacementRapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPO) is a rare condition which is poorly understood. Limited published literature is available. Reported here is a cohort of patients with RPO and acetabular bone loss who underwent primary THA. Risk factors, degree of acetabular bone loss and outcomes are presented. A typical case of RPO is described and investigations discussed. A retrospective audit was undertaken. 49 patients over an 18-year period were included. RPO patients were significantly older (P < 0.01) and had a lower BMI (P = 0.03).
Total Hip Arthroplasty for the Sequelae of Femoral Neck Fractures in the Pediatric PatientAlthough rare, total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be indicated in pediatric patients with degenerative changes of the hip joint after previous trauma. To illustrate management principles in this patient population, this study describes the case of a 15-year-old female who sustained bilateral femoral neck fractures after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, an atypical, low-energy mechanism for this injury. These fractures were not diagnosed until 14 weeks after the seizure episode, at which point they had progressed to nonunion on the left side, malunion on the right side, and degenerative hip joint changes were developing bilaterally.
A Novel Method of Determining Acetabular Component Size to Guide Explant in Revision Hip ArthroplastyRevision hip arthroplasty is a frequently performed procedure and is projected to increase annually. Removal of a well-fixed acetabular component can involve loss of much needed bone stock. Contemporary instruments allow acetabular removal with minimal morbidity; however, their use requires accurate knowledge of the component size. We describe a technique that allows sizing to be determined accurately, without specialized equipment, in situations where component details are unavailable. Our technique multiplies ratio of head:cup on pre-operative X-ray by the diameter of the index femoral head which is removed intra-operatively to predict index cup size.
Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia Secondary to Commonly Used Antibiotics in Total Joint ArthroplastyDrug-induced thrombocytopenia secondary to antibiotic exposure is a rare complication more commonly associated with other medications. In this review, we present a case of antibiotic-induced thrombocytopenia and discuss the clinical picture and approach to identifying the complication. With increasing use of antibiotics that may be associated with drug-induced thrombocytopenia in perioperative prophylaxis protocols, surgeons need to be cognizant of this cause of thrombocytopenia in the postoperative patient.
Direct anterior approach total hip arthroplasty for Crowe III and IV dysplasiaHigh-dislocated hip dysplasia is challenging to treat with total hip arthroplasty via the direct anterior approach (DAA). The DAA has potential advantages including optimizing component positioning, enhanced hip stability, and a more rapid postoperative recovery. We present a surgical technique for DAA total hip arthroplasty for hip dysplasia that includes preoperative planning, soft tissue releases, subtrochanteric osteotomy, component placement, and intraoperative nerve monitoring and imaging.
Total knee arthroplasty in hemophilia AHemophilia A is a rare genetic disorder involving a deficiency of clotting factor VIII. Coagulation factor replacement therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of patients with hemophilia, but recurrent hemarthrosis of major joints is often a common occurrence. Therefore, orthopaedic adult reconstructive surgeons increasingly encounter hemophilic arthropathy in young adults and consider treating with total joint arthroplasty. In this report, the authors describe a patient with hemophilia A and severe knee osteoarthritis, who was subsequently treated with primary total knee arthroplasty.
Elephant’s ear sign: a new radiographic finding indicative of acetabular retroversionAcetabular retroversion is a relatively common condition affecting the hip that can result in symptoms in some patients. Diagnosis of acetabular retroversion relies on obtaining a proper anteroposterior radiograph of the pelvis. Cross-over, posterior wall, and ischial spine signs are usually present in patients on the radiographs of patients with acetabular retroversion. In this illustrative case report, we describe an additional radiographic sign, elephant’s ear sign, associated with acetabular retroversion that we have seen to be present in patients with acetabular retroversion.
Algorithmic soft tissue femoral release in anterior approach total hip arthroplastyAlthough the anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty has gained increasing utilization, some studies have suggested a higher risk of femoral complications, as well as difficulty with femoral exposure. Techniques of soft tissue releases have been described to offer better femoral exposure, and to help mitigate complications. The purpose of the study is to describe an algorithmic soft tissue femoral release in direct anterior approach total hip arthroplasty and to assess the clinical outcomes of patients upon which this algorithm of femoral soft tissue releases was utilized.
Creating a dual articulating antibiotic spacer for management of an infected total femur prosthesis hemiarthroplastyThe gold standard for management of chronic periprosthetic joint infections is a 2-stage revision arthroplasty with the first stage being explantation, debridement, and placement of a spacer. While there are implants designed to manage periprosthetic infections in hip and knee arthroplasty, there are not any commercially available implants designed to specifically manage an infected total femur megaprosthesis. This creates a unique surgical challenge and requires custom construction of a spacer to be performed by the surgeon intraoperatively.
Robotic arm assisted total knee arthroplasty workflow optimization, operative times and learning curveRobotic arm assisted total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) has many potential benefits including advanced preoperative templating, restoration of mechanical alignment, accuracy of bony resection, robust safety mechanisms, and dynamic gap balancing. One of the most frequently quoted drawbacks preventing experienced surgeons from adopting this technology is the perceived increase in surgical time. This technique paper outlines the general concepts used to improve operating room efficiency as well as the step-by-step workflow to consistently perform RTKA with surgical times under 60 minutes.
The anterior approach for conversion hip arthroplastyConversion of prior proximal femoral fracture fixation to hip arthroplasty is a fairly common and successful procedure, necessitated by various modes of failure. The procedure is well described utilizing a posterior or anterolateral surgical approach. The anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty has gained in popularity. The approach allows for supine positioning and facilitates live fluoroscopic imaging. We present possible advantages and disadvantages, as well as the surgical technique, of conversion to total hip arthroplasty via the direct anterior approach.
Intraoperative povidone-iodine irrigation for infection preventionAlthough prevention of infection following arthroplasty requires a multifaceted approach, the use of intraoperative irrigation is an important component of any protocol. Recent clinical practice guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control, World Health Organization, and International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection advocate the use of a dilute povidone-iodine solution prior to wound closure. Our experience suggests that this practice is safe, inexpensive, and easily implemented.
External fixator arthrodesis antibiotic spacer in two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty for eradication of periprosthetic joint infectionTwo-stage revision total knee arthroplasty remains the gold standard for management of chronic periprosthetic joint infection in North America. Static cement antibiotic spacers used after knee resection to deliver high-dose antibiotics lack primary stability, potentially leading to spacer migration or dislocation, additional bone loss, extensor mechanism erosion, and even knee subluxation or frank dislocation. A custom brace or cast is often required to augment knee stability, which is time-consuming, costly, and prevents monitoring or wound care of the soft tissues.
Optimum anatomic socket position and sizing for the direct anterior approach: impingement and instabilityA comprehensive strategy is important for ensuring reproducible and safe acetabular component sizing and positioning. Presented here is our approach for anatomic acetabular component positioning in direct anterior total hip arthroplasty. This strategy has evolved with our understanding of the ramifications of socket sizing and positioning on instability and impingement. Data collected by a single surgeon (J.A.R.) between 2009 and 2011 influenced our current paradigm. We compare the sizing and positioning parameters of the anterior and posterior approach, thus demonstrating how the 2 are different.
Femoral artery injury during total hip arthroplastyThere are an increasing number of vascular complications after hip replacement, some of which can be life-threatening. However, there are few reports of lower limb ischemic symptoms after undergoing an otherwise uncomplicated classic total hip replacement. We report a patient with low weight who developed postoperative limb ischemia resulting from blood clots caused by insertion of a Hohmann retractor close to small anterior acetabular osteophytes. Ultrasonography and angiography revealed her symptoms to be the result of femoral artery intimal injury with lower extremity arterial thrombosis, which led to pain, numbness, and decreased skin temperature.
Hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head secondary to alcohol abuseAlthough the challenges of hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis (AVN) are known, limited data exist to describe patient demographics and outcomes in the setting of AVN attributed to alcoholism. We retrospectively identified 43 patients (62 hips) who underwent primary hip arthroplasty between 1999 and 2016 for a diagnosis of AVN of the femoral head with a concomitant diagnosis of alcohol abuse and minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean, 8.6 years). The mean age was 51 years, predominantly male (88%), with a high rate of comorbidities.
Total knee replacement in patients with osteoarthritis and concomitant inveterate patellar dislocationThe inveterate patellar dislocation is an uncommon entity. The most frequent findings correspond to a misaligned valgus associated with lateral patellar dislocation. When severe knee osteoarthritis is present, total knee arthroplasty is an option, whether it is associated or not with realignment of the extensor apparatus. We present a review of published literature on correction of inveterate patellar dislocation associated with knee arthritis and our surgical technique with a case of inveterate patellar dislocation associated with tricompartmental knee osteoarthritis, in which a total knee arthroplasty was performed associated with proximal and distal realignment of the extensor apparatus.
Acetabular wedge augments for uncontained tibial plateau defects in revision total knee arthroplastyTibial bone loss is a common scenario encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty. Reconstructive options depend on the amount and location of bone loss, but few good solutions exist to address large, uncontained tibial defects where cortical support is lost in the metadiaphyseal region. We describe a novel technique using acetabular augments to buttress a revision tibial component and recreate a hemiplateau during tibial revision total knee arthroplasty. In selected scenarios, this construct can create a biomechanically friendlier surface onto which to support the tibial tray and a less expensive option when compared to traditional stacked augments or cones.
What can the surgeon do to reduce the risk of junction breakage in modular revision stems?Modular revision stems are very common in hip arthroplasty, but junction fracture remains a known failure mechanism. A review of the literature with description of cases with junction breakage of modular revision stems showed that in all 24 analyzed cases, there was a common finding: the combination of an effective osteointegration of the distal component and missing medial bone support of the proximal component. The result was a bending stress point of the stem construction in the region of the junction.