Rapidly Progressive Osteoarthritis and Acetabular Bone Loss Outcomes for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Hip ReplacementRapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPO) is a rare condition which is poorly understood. Limited published literature is available. Reported here is a cohort of patients with RPO and acetabular bone loss who underwent primary THA. Risk factors, degree of acetabular bone loss and outcomes are presented. A typical case of RPO is described and investigations discussed. A retrospective audit was undertaken. 49 patients over an 18-year period were included. RPO patients were significantly older (P < 0.01) and had a lower BMI (P = 0.03).
Total Hip Arthroplasty for the Sequelae of Femoral Neck Fractures in the Pediatric PatientAlthough rare, total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be indicated in pediatric patients with degenerative changes of the hip joint after previous trauma. To illustrate management principles in this patient population, this study describes the case of a 15-year-old female who sustained bilateral femoral neck fractures after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, an atypical, low-energy mechanism for this injury. These fractures were not diagnosed until 14 weeks after the seizure episode, at which point they had progressed to nonunion on the left side, malunion on the right side, and degenerative hip joint changes were developing bilaterally.
Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia Secondary to Commonly Used Antibiotics in Total Joint ArthroplastyDrug-induced thrombocytopenia secondary to antibiotic exposure is a rare complication more commonly associated with other medications. In this review, we present a case of antibiotic-induced thrombocytopenia and discuss the clinical picture and approach to identifying the complication. With increasing use of antibiotics that may be associated with drug-induced thrombocytopenia in perioperative prophylaxis protocols, surgeons need to be cognizant of this cause of thrombocytopenia in the postoperative patient.
Hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head secondary to alcohol abuseAlthough the challenges of hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis (AVN) are known, limited data exist to describe patient demographics and outcomes in the setting of AVN attributed to alcoholism. We retrospectively identified 43 patients (62 hips) who underwent primary hip arthroplasty between 1999 and 2016 for a diagnosis of AVN of the femoral head with a concomitant diagnosis of alcohol abuse and minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean, 8.6 years). The mean age was 51 years, predominantly male (88%), with a high rate of comorbidities.
Joint replacement surgery in homeless veteransTotal joint arthroplasty (TJA) in a homeless patient is generally considered contraindicated. Here, we report our known medical and social (housing and employment) results of homeless veterans who had TJA. Thirty-seven TJAs were performed on 33 homeless patients (31 men) at our hospital between November 2000 and March 2014. This was 1.2% of all TJAs. Average age was 54 years. Average hospital stay was 4.1 days. There were no major inpatient complications. Thirty-four cases had at least 1-year follow-up in any clinic within the Veterans Affairs health care system.
Total knee arthroplasty in a patient with hypofibrinogenemiaPatients with afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia present a unique challenge to the arthroplasty surgeon as fibrinogen is a key contributor to hemostasis. Patients with these disorders are known to have a higher risk for postsurgical bleeding complications. We present the case of a patient with hypofibrinogenemia who underwent an elective total knee arthroplasty. Our colleagues in hematology-oncology guided us initially to achieve and maintain appropriate fibrinogen levels in the early perioperative period.
Removing a well-fixed femoral sleeve during revision total knee arthroplastyThe following surgical technique describes a case of a 51-year-old man with severe juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that required a 2-stage revision of an infected revision total knee implant. The patient had previously been implanted with a revision rotating platform, constrained condylar device which gained excellent fixation through the use of diaphyseal-engaging stems, and a well-ingrown, fully porous-coated femoral metaphyseal sleeve. To avoid intraoperative complications while removing the femoral sleeve, a novel technique for femoral sleeve extraction was used.
Total joint arthroplasty in patients with chronic infectious liver diseaseThe opportunity for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in patients with chronic infectious liver disease is rapidly expanding. This is the product of both superior survival of chronic hepatitis patients, evolving implant technologies, and improvement of techniques in TJA. Unfortunately, treating this group of patients is not without significant challenges that can stem from both intrahepatic and extrahepatic clinical manifestations. Moreover, many subclinical changes occur in this cohort that can alter hemostasis, wound healing, and infection risk even in the asymptomatic patient.
Total knee arthroplasty in multiple sclerosisWe present a case report of total knee arthroplasty complicated by spasticity and contractures in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Four previous case reports in the literature describe adverse outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in persons with MS secondary to severe spasticity. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations for persons with MS, which may help to improve functional outcomes, are discussed. Prospective research is needed among persons with MS to help determine the timing and selection of persons for arthroplasty and to minimize complications related to spasticity.
Total knee arthroplasty in patients with extra-articular deformityMultiple acceptable options are available for the correction of distal femoral deformity associated with knee arthritis. The treatment modality should be chosen based on the extent of deformity and attention to preservation of the collateral ligaments. Surgical options range from osteotomy alone, arthroplasty with intra-articular correction, or arthroplasty with extra-articular correction. Different implant choices and fixation methods for the osteotomy possess advantages and disadvantages which need to be considered carefully.
Concomitant achondroplasia and developmental dysplasia of the hipAchondroplasia (ACH) is the most common form of hereditary dwarfism and presents with multiple musculoskeletal anomalies but is not normally associated with premature hip arthritis. Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a spectrum of disease resulting in shallow acetabular depth and a propensity for chronic femoral subluxation or dislocation; it is among the most common causes of premature arthritis. This case report describes the diagnosis of symptomatic DDH in a patient with ACH and highlights difficulties of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a treatment option.
Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosisAlkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis). The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis.
Arthroplasty in organ transplant patientsThe number of solid organ transplants performed in the United States continues to increase annually as does survival after transplant. These unique patients are increasingly likely to present to arthroplasty surgeons for elective hip or knee replacement secondary to a vascular necrosis from chronic immunosuppression, or even age-related development of osteoarthritis. Transplant recipients have a well-documented increased risk of complications but also excellent pain relief and dramatic improvement in quality of life.
Extraction of a well fixed but fractured ceramic acetabular linerCeramic fractures have been reported to occur in hip replacements, but the techniques used to extract a well fixed but fractured component are not commonly described. We present a case of ceramic liner fracture and validate a modification of a previously reported extraction technique that allowed us to save the acetabular cup and insert a polyethylene liner. With an increasing trend in ceramic bearing usage, it is likely that the number of ceramic liner fractures will increase and therefore knowledge of successful extraction techniques will be desirable.