TJA in Rare Conditions
Total Knee Arthroplasty With Patient-Specific Instrumentation to Correct Severe Valgus Deformity in a Patient With Hereditary Multiple ExostosesPatients with hereditary multiple exostosis develop several benign osseocartilaginous bulge lesions throughout the body. A 62-year-old woman presented for evaluation of worsening left knee valgus deformity, and left knee pain. She had been diagnosed with hereditary multiple exostosis at the age of 12 years. Radiographic evaluation of the left knee revealed exostoses that caused continuous bulges from cortical bone at the metaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia as well as extra-articular deformity.
Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty for Neglected Blount Disease Using a Gap Balancing TechniqueBlount disease is an acquired, asymmetrical disorder of proximal tibial growth that results in a complex three-dimensional proximal tibial deformity, with tibial varus being the dominating feature. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, Blount disease is separated into 2 clinical variants, infantile and adolescent, based on the onset of symptoms occurring before or after the age of 10 years. If recognized and treated early, affected patients generally have a favorable prognosis; however, if neglected, it can lead to progressive malalignment and premature osteoarthritis.
Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty with a Prior Contralateral Above-Knee Amputation: A Report of 10 CasesTotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of a prior contralateral above-knee amputation (AKA) represents a rare scenario with limited reported outcomes. As such, it is difficult for surgeons to effectively counsel these patients relative to risks and expected outcomes after TKA. We report outcomes for a series of 10 such patients.
Total knee arthroplasty in hemophilia AHemophilia A is a rare genetic disorder involving a deficiency of clotting factor VIII. Coagulation factor replacement therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of patients with hemophilia, but recurrent hemarthrosis of major joints is often a common occurrence. Therefore, orthopaedic adult reconstructive surgeons increasingly encounter hemophilic arthropathy in young adults and consider treating with total joint arthroplasty. In this report, the authors describe a patient with hemophilia A and severe knee osteoarthritis, who was subsequently treated with primary total knee arthroplasty.
Total knee arthroplasty in osteogenesis imperfectaOsteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disease resulting in abnormal collagen formation, with multiple clinical manifestations. Advancements in medical and surgical treatments have prolonged the life expectancy of these patients in recent decades. As a result, orthopedic surgeons are likely to be faced with the challenge of performing arthroplasty in these patients on a more frequent basis. Here, we describe a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and subsequent severe osteoarthritis prompting primary total knee arthroplasty.
Total knee arthroplasty in a patient with hypofibrinogenemiaPatients with afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia present a unique challenge to the arthroplasty surgeon as fibrinogen is a key contributor to hemostasis. Patients with these disorders are known to have a higher risk for postsurgical bleeding complications. We present the case of a patient with hypofibrinogenemia who underwent an elective total knee arthroplasty. Our colleagues in hematology-oncology guided us initially to achieve and maintain appropriate fibrinogen levels in the early perioperative period.
Total knee arthroplasty in multiple sclerosisWe present a case report of total knee arthroplasty complicated by spasticity and contractures in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Four previous case reports in the literature describe adverse outcomes after total knee arthroplasty in persons with MS secondary to severe spasticity. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations for persons with MS, which may help to improve functional outcomes, are discussed. Prospective research is needed among persons with MS to help determine the timing and selection of persons for arthroplasty and to minimize complications related to spasticity.
Total knee arthroplasty in patients with extra-articular deformityMultiple acceptable options are available for the correction of distal femoral deformity associated with knee arthritis. The treatment modality should be chosen based on the extent of deformity and attention to preservation of the collateral ligaments. Surgical options range from osteotomy alone, arthroplasty with intra-articular correction, or arthroplasty with extra-articular correction. Different implant choices and fixation methods for the osteotomy possess advantages and disadvantages which need to be considered carefully.
Arthroplasty in organ transplant patientsThe number of solid organ transplants performed in the United States continues to increase annually as does survival after transplant. These unique patients are increasingly likely to present to arthroplasty surgeons for elective hip or knee replacement secondary to a vascular necrosis from chronic immunosuppression, or even age-related development of osteoarthritis. Transplant recipients have a well-documented increased risk of complications but also excellent pain relief and dramatic improvement in quality of life.